(Released in 2022)
All-China Journalists Association
DEVELOPMENT OF nEWS MEDIA IN cHINA: aN Overview 5
ii. Radio and television: Radio and television broadcasters gave full play to their advantages in audiovisual communication, and their international communication capabilities continued to improve………………………………………………………………………… 16
The Development of China’s News Media Report is compiled by the All-China Journalists Association to track and record the development of news media in China on a regular basis. Since the release of the 2020 edition, faced with opportunities and challenges brought by in-depth media convergence, China’s news media industry has undergone some changes and made some progress, which we hope to capture as much as possible in this 2022 edition.
The data for 2020 and 2021 came from the Cyberspace Administration of China, the National Radio and Television Administration, the National Press and Publication Administration and some news media outlets. The School of Journalism and Communication of Renmin University of China drafted the report. The final report was translated and published by Foreign Languages Press.
We are deeply indebted to the above institutions and all the others for their hard work and contribution to this report.
In September 2020, the Opinions on Accelerating In-Depth Convergence of News Media was released, setting out general requirements for deep convergence of news media, emphasizing the importance and urgency of this task in the omni-media era and urging to foster a number of influential and competitive new-type mainstream media outlets as soon as possible. In 2020 and 2021, omni-media and platform-based communication became a rising trend in China’s news media industry, while traditional media such as radio, television and newspapers slowed in growth and continued to focus on deep convergence and digital transformation. Emerging technologies such as media platforms, data transmission, high-definition video technology, artificial intelligence (AI), and 5G drove media reform and innovation. In this context, the media workforce in China is becoming younger and better educated, and more capable.
Traditional media continued to expand their mobile Internet operations, implemented the omni-media strategy, bolstered international communication capabilities, promoted the “live-streaming plus short video” model, and strengthened the ability to provide omni-media information services and integrated services. New media became an important growth point of the media industry.
According to the 49th China Statistical Report on Internet Development, as of December 2021, the number of Internet users in China reached 1,032 million, an increase of 42.96 million from December 2020, and the Internet penetration rate was 73.0%; the number of online news users reached 771 million, an increase of 28.35 million from December 2020, accounting for 74.7% of China’s total Internet users.
Figure 1 Number of online news users and percentage of total Internet users (June 2018—December 2021)
As of December 31, 2021, China had 3,208 Internet news information service providers, providing 12,625 licensed service items, including 1,846 Internet sites, 2,910 applications, and 7,671 public accounts.
1. The types, total circulation, and total amount of pricing of printed newspapers continued to decline, but the total profit of the newspaper industry increased significantly.
According to the News Industry Report 2020 released by the National Press and Publication Administration in December 2021, a total of 1,810 types of newspapers were published in China in 2020, a decrease of 2.22% from the previous year; the total newspaper circulation was 28,914 million, down 8.96%; printed sheets stood at 65,469 million, down 17.81%; the total amount of pricing was RMB 36,643 million, down 6.62%; revenue reached RMB 53,945 million, down 6.36%; the total profit was RMB 5,043 million, an increase of 32.12% (see Table 1).
Table 1 Newspaper publishing in 2020
|Indicator||Quantity/Amount||Compared with 2019 (%)|
|Types of newspapers||1,810||-2.22|
|Printed copies (million)||28,914||-8.96|
|Printed sheets (million)||65,469||-17.81|
|Total amount of pricing (RMB million)||36,643||-6.62|
|Revenue (RMB million)||53,945||-6.36|
|Total profit (RMB million)||5,043||32.12|
Newspapers in China are divided into national, provincial, prefecture/city-level, and county-level newspapers by their geographical coverage. In 2020, China published 7,478 million copies of national newspapers, down 3.58% from 2019, 12,384 million copies of provincial-level newspapers, down 12.15%, 8,951 million copies of prefecture/city-level newspapers, down 8.71%, 100 million copies of county-level newspapers, an increase of 0.44% (see Figure 2 and Table 2).
Figure 2 Printed copies of newspapers by geographical coverage in 2020
Table 2 Printed copies of newspapers by geographical coverage in 2020
|Newspaper by geographical coverage||Total printed copies (million)||Growth rate (%)||Proportion (%)||Compared with 2019 (percentage points)|
By content, newspapers are divided into five categories: comprehensive newspapers, specialized newspapers, lifestyle service newspapers, reader-oriented newspapers, and digests. In 2020, China published 17,763 million copies of comprehensive newspapers, a decrease of 8.89% compared with 2019, 9,123 million copies of specialized newspapers, down 7.54%, 407 million copies of lifestyle service newspapers, down 31.15%, 1,388 million copies of reader-oriented newspapers, down 8.72%, and 233 million copies of digests, down 18.17% (see Figure 3 and Table 3).
Figure 3 Printed copies of newspapers by type of content in 2020 (million)
Table 3 Printed copies of newspapers by type of content in 2020
|Newspaper by type of content||Total printed copies (million)||Growth rate (%)||Proportion (%)||Compared with 2019 (percentage points)|
|Lifestyle service newspapers||407||-31.15||1.41||-0.45|
In 2020, 18 newspapers (2019: 20 newspapers), including People’s Daily, Xinhua Daily Telegraph, and Reference News, printed one million copies or more per issue. Among them, there were five comprehensive newspapers, the same as the previous year, 12 specialized newspapers and one reader-oriented newspaper, both down by one from the previous year. Among the top 10 most circulated comprehensive newspapers by average circulation per issue in 2020, six are owned by central media organizations, and the remaining four are from Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shandong in economically developed East China.
Table 4 Top 10 comprehensive newspapers by average printed copies per issue in 2020
|Ranking of 2020||Newspaper||Weekly issues||Locality||Change in ranking compared with 2019|
|1||People’s Daily||7||Beijing (central media organization)||0|
|2||Xinhua Daily Telegraph||7||Beijing (central media organization)||1|
|3||Reference News||7||Beijing (central media organization)||-1|
|4||Guangming Daily||7||Beijing (central media organization)||0|
|5||Economic Daily||7||Beijing (central media organization)||2|
|8||Global Times||6||Beijing (central media organization)||-3|
|9||Peninsula Metropolis Daily||6||Shandong||-1|
|10||Qianjiang Evening News||7||Zhejiang||0|
2. China’s newspaper industry continued to harvest the power of the Internet by various means and target global markets.
The signature move of the digital transformation and in-depth media convergence taken by newspapers at all levels was to interact with the public in various forms on websites and social media platforms by using multimedia products, to seek social and economic benefits in new areas. Newspapers have formed their internal new-media team to develop its own communication platform, and at the same time expanded to more and more communication platforms to improve the mobile communication system.
As of November 30, 2021, People’s Daily had attracted more than 650 million subscribers on all new media platforms. Its official account on Weibo had more than 140 million followers, making it the most followed media account on Weibo. Its official account on WeChat had over 40.5 million subscribers. Its app saw 273 million cumulative downloads. Overseas users accounted for 71% of the users of its official English-language app, which registered 4.96 million cumulative downloads. The Douyin account of People’s Daily had more than 140 million followers, ranking first among all accounts on the platform. Its Kuaishou account had more than 54 million followers and Bilibili account 2.25 million followers. To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC, People’s Daily launched a variety of multimedia projects and interactive activities, produced a themed music video Youth, and built an interactive experience hall “No.100 Fuxing Avenue.” These activities and content had wide audience appeal.
Figure 4 Themed music video Youth produced by People’s Daily
China Daily, China’s most popular English-language newspaper, focused on growth in both international and domestic markets. As of December 2021, the app of China Daily was downloaded 36 million times cumulatively worldwide; its Weibo account had more than 64 million followers and WeChat account 12 million followers. Its Facebook account had more than 100 million followers, ranking second among all media accounts on the platform. The number of followers of its Twitter account stood at about 4.25 million. In May 2021, China Daily launched a bilingual (English and Chinese) documentary entitled Looking for Answers: An American Communist Explores China. It is about a journey embarked on by Ian Goodrum, an American journalist and a member of the Communist Party of the United States, in search of answers to the question about the past glorious century of the CPC. The documentary was viewed 45 million times and cited and reposted by overseas mainstream media more than 200 times.
Figure 5 Screenshots of the documentary Looking for Answers: An American Communist Explores China
In July 2021, Beijing Daily launched a 10-episode short video series Decode a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects, which adopts the innovative form of pingshu (a traditional Chinese performing art of storytelling) and animation, to show the strategies, history and world influence of the CPC and how it has led the Chinese people in the endeavor to eradicate poverty and achieve moderate prosperity.
Figure 6 Screenshot of the video series Decode a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects
In 2021, Liaoning Daily launched a publicity campaign centering around the theme “People First.” The campaign took various forms of publicity, including special issues of the newspaper, short videos, and long pictures. The newspaper ran four special issues, entitled “Foundation,” “Bloodline,” “Strength” and “Bond” respectively, on the theme “People First.” The four issues, which have 52 columns and nearly 250,000 Chinese characters, vividly demonstrate how the CPC has always put people first in the past 100 years.
Figure 7 Liaoning Daily’s multimedia publicity campaign that centers around the theme of “People First”
In July 2020, Guizhou Daily established the province’s first Online Converged Media Editorial Department to serve 96 county-level converged media centers across the province, support their secondary processing and dissemination of content, promote mutually beneficial collaboration in content creation, technology, creative ideas and planning for common development.
Figure 8 The 54th issue of Guizhou Converged Media Weekly E-Magazine
1. Institutional size: The number of radio and television broadcasters declined, and county-level broadcasters accounted for the largest percentage of all radio and television broadcasters in the country.
The 21st century has seen an increase in the merger between cable and wireless TV stations and between radio and TV stations. As media convergence continues to advance, the frequency allocation for radio and television channels have been streamlined. By the end of 2021, China had 2,542 radio and television broadcasters, down 49 from 2020. Among them, there were 2,106 county-level broadcasters (including radio and television stations and county-level converged media centers), accounting for 83% of the total number of broadcasters in the country, 401 broadcasters at or above the prefecture/city level, and 35 educational television stations. There were 2,366 radio and television channels run by broadcasters at or above the prefecture/city level, including 1,166 radio channels and 1,200 TV channels, and 38 education channels run by education stations at all levels. China had 985 high-definition television channels, eight 4K UHD channels and one 8K UHD channel. China Media Group (CMG) and all 25 provincial-level TV channels in China were HD channels, so were 73% of China’s prefecture/city-level TV channels.
Figure 9 Number of radio and television broadcasters and channels
2. Content production: China produced more than 11 million hours of radio and TV programs, including over 2.5 million hours of news programs.
In 2020, China produced 8,210.4 thousand hours of radio programs (including 1,452.7 thousand hours of news programs) and broadcast 15,807.2 thousand hours of radio programs (including 3,135.5 thousand hours of news programs).
Figure 10 Length of radio programs produced and broadcast in China
The total length of TV programs produced stood at 3,282.4 thousand hours (including 1,097.5 thousand hours of news programs), and that of TV programs broadcast stood at 19,883.1 thousand hours (including 2,855.5 thousand hours of news programs). News programs attracted 86.02% of TV viewers, the highest among all types of programs. Average total daily viewing time of news programs stood at 46.2 minutes per household.
Figure 11 Length of TV programs produced and broadcast in China
Online audiovisual content in China increased by 220 million hours in length. The average time spent by Internet users watching online videos (including short videos) was about 100 minutes per person per day and listening to online audio was about 20 minutes per person per day.
3. Online audiovisual content: Providers of online audiovisual content focused on providing short videos, capabilities for using omni-media to provide comprehensive services continued to improve.
Radio and television broadcasters continue to tap the growth potential of the online audiovisual industry, especially live-streaming and short videos. They are working to build an omni-media matrix that provides scenario-based omni-media information and other services for government, civil, and commercial purposes.
Providing short videos is high on the agenda of many news apps, including YangShiPin and CCTV News launched by China Media Group, Lightning News by Shandong Radio and Television, Sichuan Observer by Sichuan Radio and Television, Litchi News by Jiangsu Broadcasting Corporation, and China Blue News by Zhejiang Radio & TV Group. In addition to self-owned communication channels, radio and television broadcasters also use third-party Internet platforms. On the two largest short video platforms Douyin and Kuaishou, accounts of central-level radio and television broadcasters increased by more than 160% in 2020, and those of provincial-level radio and television broadcasters more than 700%.
China Media Group has been trying to optimize its omni-media matrix, and revamp and upgrade its major apps. YangShiPin has launched 12 vertical channels. The content of the app is planned and produced together with that of the TV channels. YunTing provides tailored content for children and elderly people.
Beijing Media Network is working to create a converged media matrix with its two apps Beijing Time and TingTing FM at the core. Beijing Time has launched Time Video, Time Live and other sections, and provides a wide range of services for citizens, including response to citizen demands, payment services, hospital appointment registration, social security, traffic management, educational information services, and community-based services.
Figure 12 The interface of Beijing Time, an app of Beijing Media Network
In 2020 and 2021, on the basis of the technological advantages arising from media convergence and transformation, radio and television broadcasters continued to improve their capability to provide content for international audiences, strengthen international cooperation in news production and distribution, and bolster the production and distribution of content products.
As of February 2021, CCTV+ had established cooperative relations with 540 media organizations in 140 countries and regions, and established media partnership mechanisms in countries under the Belt and Road Initiative, Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Pacific Island countries.
Shanghai Media Group provides audiovisual content for over 3 million users through its official accounts on overseas media platforms such as ShanghaiEye and International Channel Shanghai (ICS).
Figure 13 ShanghaiEye’s homepage on YouTube
Mango TV International is the main international communication platform of Hunan Broadcasting System. By the end of 2021, it had over 31 million overseas users, 1,500 programs and 150,000 hours of content, including variety shows, movies, TV series and other content, and offered subtitles in 18 languages. It has made a continuous effort to improve its capability to reach Generation Z.
Figure 14 Screenshot of the homepage of Mango TV International
China’s media pays close attention to big events. The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health crisis. The National Radio and Television Administration, together with other departments, has produced a series of short videos telling, in multiple languages, the stories of individuals in the battle against COVID-19 in China. It has also launched a series of short videos centering around the theme “Stronger Together against COVID-19,” telling stories of China working together with other countries to fight COVID-19.
In April 2021, videos of a pack of wild elephants in Yunnan making the journey north went viral on the Internet. Many mainstream media outlets in China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea and other countries closely followed this herd of elephants. Some foreign media outlets directly used videos produced by CCTV and CGTN.
Figure 15 A photo of elephants sleeping soundly, which has taken domestic and foreign media by storm
The forms of international cooperation in audiovisual content production and distribution are becoming more and more diverse, and media cooperation between China and ASEAN and Arab countries has become normalized. In 2020 and 2021, the 2nd and 3rd China-ASEAN TV Weeks were successfully held. The LMC TV Week became a new media cooperation mechanism in countries along the Lancang-Mekong River. In December 2021, the 5th China-Arab States Radio and Television Cooperation Forum was held, and issued a joint statement and published a number of cooperation outcomes.
Figure 16 Ahmed Aboul Gheit, Secretary-General of the Arab League, addressing the opening ceremony of the 5th China-Arab States Radio and Television Cooperation Forum via video link
5. Revenue structure: The industry’s total revenue crossed RMB one trillion mark, and new media became an important source of revenue.
In 2020, the total revenue of China’s radio and television industry was RMB 921,460 million, an increase of 13.66% over 2019. Among which, the operating revenue of radio and television broadcasters and online audiovisual businesses stood at RMB 771,176 million, an increase of 13.96% over the previous year. The structure of the operating revenue is as follows:
Figure 17 Operating revenue structure of China’s radio and television industry in 2020
The revenue structure is constantly changing. Revenue of radio and television is declining, and new media has become an important growth driver. In 2020, total advertising revenue of the industry was RMB 194,006 million, among which advertising revenue of radio and television was RMB 78,958 million, down 20.95% from the previous year, new media RMB 88,996 million, a year-on-year increase of 7.38%, and other advertising revenue (wallscape advertising, outdoor advertising, etc.) RMB 26,052 million, a year-on-year increase of 5.19%. Revenue of cable TV networks from basic services (maintenance fees, pay-TV channels, etc.) was RMB 52,061 million, a decrease of 18.30% from the previous year; revenue of cable TV networks from value-added services (broadband connection, services for group customers, etc.) was RMB 23,637 million, a year-on-year increase of 12.67%.
Revenue of radio and television broadcasters from Internet Protocol television (IPTV) and over-the-top television (OTT TV) continued to grow. In 2020, revenue of IPTV platform was RMB 13,582 million, a year-on-year increase of 12.03%, and that of OTT TV services providers was RMB 7,110 million, a year-on-year increase of 13.71%.
Revenue of licensed and registered online audiovisual content providers continued to grow, reaching RMB 294,393 million in 2020, a year-on-year increase of 69.37%.
Since 2020, Xinhua News Agency has pooled its high-quality resources for themed reporting and published more than 27,000 themed reports per year, creating a far-reaching impact on society. In 2021, it released more than 12,000 reports in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC. Among them, more than 30 converged media products including A Ferry Ticket and Beidou created a sensation in the country.
In 2020 and 2021, the influence of China News Service’s omni-media matrix continuously improved. Columns of China News Service such as “China Up Close” published about 7,000 reports on the logic behind the behavior of Chinese people and Chinese concepts to help international audiences to gain a better understanding of China in the new era. The converged media content in diverse forms reached a wide audience and enjoyed far-reaching influence.
2. Creating converged media platforms for international communication and developing innovative multi-form think tank products
Xinhua News Agency has built a domestic omni-media platform and a converged media platform for international communication, reformed the reporting process and mechanism, and created an innovative product system. Xinhua Omni-Media Headline, Globalink, China Album, and New Youth have become important brands of the news agency. To mark the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC, the think tank of Xinhua News Agency released several bilingual (Chinese and English) reports, including Chinese Poverty Alleviation Studies, People First, and Pursuing Common Values of Humanity. China News Service launched converged media political and cultural columns such as East and West and China Focus: Face-to-face Interview, offering expert insights and think tank resources on hot topics and building an East-West dialogue platform.
Since 2020, Xinhua News Agency has normalized converged-media news service in 15 foreign languages and its services have reached all G20 countries. It has kept abreast of the latest developments in COVID-19 and published more than 130,000 articles on the pandemic. Reports on the fight against COVID-19 in China and the global fight against COVID-19, published by Xinhua News Agency in different languages, have received over 50 million views. As of the end of 2021, Xinhua News Agency’s official website and app as well as its accounts on Weibo, WeChat and other social media platforms received more than one billion views. According to the Alexa ranking, Xinhuanet remained solidly in the top 25 among global media outlets. The Xinhuanet app offers service in nine languages. The app of Xinhua News Agency had been downloaded more than 420 million times. Overseas users accounted for approximately 70% of users of the English-language app of Xinhua News Agency. The number of followers of Xinhua News Agency on overseas social media platforms reached 240 million, showing its growing international influence.
Figure 20 Global Fight against COVID-19: On May 26, 2020, the Chinese medical experts, who visited Brazzaville, the capital of Congo, to provide guidance for the construction of a local COVID-19 ward, took a photo with local front-line medical staff.
In 2020, China News Service launched nearly 560,000 news products, including nearly one thousand livestreaming events, a year-on-year increase of 40%, across all types of media. It had 205 accounts on domestic social media platforms and 18 on overseas ones, and the total number of subscribers or users of these accounts reached nearly 400 million. China News Service created “# 文化中国”, “#AmazingChina (#魅力中国)”, and “#ChinaBites (#中国味道)” hashtags on social media platforms and launched the “Mid-Autumn Festival Online Gathering” WeChat mini-program. It also launched a large-scale interview project in countries along the Lancang-Mekong River, seeking to build a new people-to-people exchange platform for these countries. It produced 5-episode documentary series The Fight against COVID-19 in China based on front-line interviews in Wuhan. The documentary has been translated into multiple foreign languages and broadcast in Central and Southeast Asian countries.
Figure 21 The Fight against COVID-19 in China was launched on chinanews.com and multiple Chinese and overseas video and social media platforms.
II. Technological innovation and its application in media
In 2020 and 2021, China’s news industry made remarkable progress in digital transmission technology, omni-media smart technology, media platform technology, and video technology and applied these technologies to cover major events, including the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC, the fight against COVID-19, poverty reduction, the Tokyo 2020 Games, and the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Beijing 2022. These technologies have empowered the growth of China’s news media industry in all respects.
i. Advancements in 5G, DTS and other digital transmission technologies significantly boosted the content production capability of media
In 2020 and 2021, 5G and other digital transmission technologies gradually matured and became an important tool for media to improve core competencies and content production capability.
On December 1, 2020, Xinhua News Agency published its first news report China at Altitude of 600,000 Meters via 5G network. Innovative applications of 5G technology launched by Xinhua News Agency, including its 5G-enabled news collection, editing and distribution platform, grassroots governance platform (quan min pai), and split screen interview livestreaming platform are examples of fusion of news and cutting-edge digital technology. When reporting the Mount Qomolangma re-measurement expedition in 2020, Xinhua News Agency used a wireless data transmission system independently developed by itself at an altitude of 8,848 meters above sea level, covering distances of over 20 kilometers. It was the first time 5G signals had ascended the highest peak in the world. In 2021, Xinhua News Agency took the lead in creating the 5G Converged Media Application Alliance and made remarkable progress in the construction of a new independent and controllable communication platform.
Figure 22 The 5G base station near the Advance Base Camp on Mount Qomolangma at an altitude of 6,500 meters
China Media Group has collaborated with stakeholders to explore applications of 5G technology in the field of UHD video streaming, and build 5G media laboratories and a 5G+4K/8K UHD video production and broadcast platform. It is the first broadcaster in China to successfully deliver an 8K UHD broadcast via the 5G network, and the world’s first to successfully deliver a live 4K broadcast of a deep-sea exploration at a depth of over 10,000 meters and the first to broadcast the 2020 re-measurement expedition of Mount Qomolangma via 5G technology. YangShiPin and other platforms remastered and restored some classic films such as The Eternal Wave in 4K.
Figure 23 5G+4K/8K UHD production and broadcast platform supporting project: CCTV Sports Studio
China News Service has launched global Data Transfer Service (DTS), which ensures data integrity, enables cross-border data flow up to 10 megabits per second (bandwidth: 100 megabits), and provides technical support for video and large file transmission.
Guangdong Radio and Television Station, together with 21 prefecture-level and above radio and television stations in the province, has launched a converged media program Flying Over Guangdong. It has also employed 5G live-streaming, virtual studio, online packaging and other transmission and production technologies to produce new media products including H5, vertical scroll comics, and creative short videos on themes such as poverty alleviation and the 100th anniversary of the founding of the CPC.
In 2020 and 2021, artificial intelligence was widely integrated into all aspects of media operations, and many AI products were launched. Media companies’ capability to provide smart media service was greatly improved. People’s Daily launched a writing robot with 5G-enabled interviewing, AI-assisted production, and news tracking functions. The robot combines 5G and AI to enable smarter journalism. Shenzhen Press Group launched the Dute AI-enabled Card Reading Mode, which integrates quick browsing, sharing, and omni-media broadcast functions and presents content visually in the form of cards, thereby simplifying reading and sharing experience.
Figure 24 A journalist of People’s Daily using the writing robot to produce and edit materials relating to the ministers’ entrance at the Fourth Session of the 13th National People’s Congress
In 2021, cctv.com employed AI technologies such as deep neural networks to launch a special program C+True Detective which live-streamed interviews with deputies attending the “Two Sessions” (i.e., the National People’s Congress and Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference) conducted by a 3D virtual reporter. Xinhua News Agency’s News Media Center and Sogou jointly launched an upgraded version of the AI-empowered virtual anchor Yani, which used a split screen setup during interviews. Other AI virtual anchors include Xiaoni of Beijing Media Network, Xiaoguang of Heilongjiang Radio and Television, Xiaoqing of Guangxi Radio and Television, and Xiaoyang of Hunan Broadcasting System. More and more TV broadcasters have adopted the AI sign language broadcast system. News presentation is becoming more interesting and edgy. When reporting on the Two Sessions, sixteen media outlets, including Changjiang Cloud of Hubei Television, jointly established a national news editorial department, using blockchain and cloud computing technology to create a holographic system for interaction.
Figure 25 Xinhua News Agency launched an upgraded version of the AI-enabled virtual anchor Yani.
Figure 26 The program C+True Detective was well received by viewers on CBox, Kuaishou, Douyin and other platforms.
Media platforms have been developing rapidly. In 2020 and 2021, the whole process of media operations, from information collection to editing, review and broadcast, was empowered by various media platforms which facilitated the stable operation and efficient iteration of the business systems of media outlets.
Creative Brain independently developed by People’s Daily was officially released in 2020. It offers a variety of functions, including focusing on key figures in live-streaming, customized omni-channel hot topic monitoring and early warning, and multi-dimensional AI-empowered file analysis, to enable platform-based media production in an all-round way.
Figure 27 The interface of Creative Brain of People’s Daily
Amid the fight against COVID-19, with the coordination of the State Administration of Radio and Television, seven Internet TV platforms, six online audiovisual platforms and the IPTV platform of Hubei employed location awareness and other technologies to provide audiences in Hubei with free audiovisual content.
In 2020, chinanews.com employed technologies such as CI/CD automation and cloud native computing to achieve dynamic allocation and easy recycling of basic resources. In April 2020, China News Service launched a mobile application that provides up-to-date information on COVID-19. The app employs new technologies such as dynamic maps and location services to achieve accurate sharing of COVID-19 information.
Figure 28 The information service platform launched by China News Service to support the fight against COVID-19
When reporting on the completion and opening of the memorial halls at the three major conference sites of the CPC, Nanfang Daily launched a new exhibition “Guangdong Red Map,” which employed VR technology to visually present information on more than 4,000 revolutionary sites in the province on one map and allowed users to share photos taken at popular photo spots on the map.
In 2020 and 2021, widespread applications of advanced technologies in the radio and television broadcast industry effectively drove the transition of the industry from networked operations to digital and smart technology-empowered operations, enabling radio and television broadcasters to provide users with improved interactive and immersive audiovisual experiences.
In the live-broadcast of the ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC, China Media Group used aerial work platforms, AI-enabled tracking and shooting equipment, 4K cameras and other live-broadcast equipment to create a memorable, immersive experience for viewers.
Figure 29 AI-enabled tracking and shooting equipment of China Media Group
With respect to video processing and live-streaming technology, in 2020, the State Council Information Office and the Hubei Provincial People’s Government held a press conference at the height of the COVID-19 epidemic using China Broadcasting Network’s 5G live-streaming technology. It was the first time that 5G standalone, 700MHz and 4.9GHz frequency coordination, and FDD and TDD systems were used together in broadcasting. In terms of applications of short video technology, Sichuan Radio and Television Station launched slow streaming and DouTV projects which employed 5G technology to offer 24/7 livestreaming service and enable alert insertion. Multichannel dissemination of short video news has become a trend in the industry.
Figure 30 Contactless press conference enabled by China Broadcasting Network’s 5G technology
Many 5G, cloud broadcasting, UHD video, free viewpoint and other event broadcast and video technologies developed by China were employed in the broadcast of the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Beijing 2022. The CCTV Olympic Channel (CCTV-16) and its digital platform were launched on October 25, 2021. CCTV-16 is the world’s first 24-hour satellite television sports channel in 4K ultra high definition.
Figure 31 CCTV-16 and its digital platform were launched.
Beijing 2022 was the first edition of Olympic Winter Games produced entirely in UHD 4K and HDR and broadcast in 8K by rights-holding broadcasters. China Media Group was responsible for producing international public signals for six Olympic disciplines and for all Para events, Paralympic opening and closing ceremonies, and medals plazas. It had taken China Media Group five years to develop the Cheetah ultra-high-speed 4K orbital camera system which was installed in the National Speed Skating Oval. The speed of the system reached 90 kilometers per hour (25 m/s) and was specially used for the coverage of speed skating events. Other technologies such as 3D playback, venue simulation, drones, biological data, subjective cameras, sound collection, arbitration signals, and bullet time were also widely used in TV broadcast to improve the quality of audiovisual content.
Figure 32 Many advanced technologies were widely used in the broadcast of the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Beijing 2022.
Radio and television broadcasters have also participated in poverty reduction with media technologies such as short videos and livestreaming. For example, Shaanxi Broadcast & TV Network launched the “Made in Shaanxi” converged media interactive live-streaming project; Jiangsu Broadcasting Corporation launched the non-profit converged media program “Going Home from the End of the Yangtze River,” The radio and television broadcast industry has widely used e-commerce to support poverty reduction and eradication of absolute poverty.
1. Newspaper industry: The number of employees slightly declined.
In 2020, China’s newspaper industry had 171,000 employees, down 6.6% compared to 2019. In 2017, 2018 and 2019, the industry had 206,000, 193,000, and 183,000 employees, respectively. The number of employees in the industry had been declining for four consecutive years. The year 2017, 2018, and 2019 saw a year-on-year decline of 7.9%, 6.1%, and 5.5%, respectively, in employees of the newspaper industry.
Figure 33 Workforce of the newspaper industry
2. Radio and television: There was an increase in workforce diversity and close to half of the workforce was below 35 years of age.
As of the end of 2020, China’s radio and television broadcast industry had employed 1,011,000 workers, a year-on-year increase of 1.67%, including 425,800 female workers, accounting for 42.12% of the total. There were 171,500 managers, 523,900 professional and technical workers (including 30,000 news presenters and archers, 175,700 editors and journalists, 31,600 artists and related workers, and 149,600 engineers), and 315,500 other workers. Among them, professional and technical workers accounted for 51.82% of the total. There were 62,000 workers with a Master’s degree or above and 788,600 workers with a Bachelor’s degree or a diploma of vocational education. Workers with a diploma of vocational education or above accounted for 84.13% of the total. There were 446,500 workers under 35 years of age, 434,800 workers aged 36-50, and 129,700 workers aged 51 and over. Workers under 35 represented 44.16% of the total.
3. News agencies: Nearly 40% of all workers employed had a Master’s degree or above.
As of the end of 2021, Xinhua News Agency had 12,000 employees. Nearly 40% of all workers employed by the headquarters and domestic branches of Xinhua News Agency had a Master’s degree or above.
By December 2021, China News Service had 2,032 employees, of which male employees accounted for 53% and female employees 47%. Employees with a Master’s degree or above accounted for 37%, and employees with a Bachelor’s degree accounted for 50%.
ii. Accredited journalists: Nearly 90% accredited journalists worked for local news agencies and development of new media picked up the pace
As of December 2021, China had 194,263 journalists who held a valid journalist certificate. Among them, 22,402 worked for central news agencies, accounting for 11.53% of the total, and 171,861 worked for local news agencies, accounting for 88.47%. Among them, 95,966 were male, accounting for 49.40%, and 98,297 female, accounting for 50.60%. And 21,719 accredited journalists held a diploma of vocational education, accounting for 11.18% of the total; 148,378 held a Bachelor’s degree, accounting for 76.38%; 23,234 held a Master’s degree, accounting for 11.96%; 796 held a Doctor’s degree, accounting for 0.41%; 136 had other academic qualifications, accounting for 0.07%. By age, 14,123 accredited journalists were under 30, accounting for 7.27% of the total; 74,966 aged 30 to 40, accounting for 38.59%; 65,525 aged 40 to 50, 33.73%; 39,649 aged over 50, 20.41%. By the type of media outlets, 70,131 accredited journalists worked for newspapers, 4,333 for periodicals, 2,919 for news agencies, 94,370 worked for radio, television and newsreel production studios, 3,285 for news websites (including 1,836 central news websites and 1,449 local news websites), and 19,225 for converged media centers.
Figure 35 Distribution of accredited journalists
Rights Protection and Aid for Journalists
In 2020 and 2021, the All-China Journalists Association (ACJA) and other related organizations made proactive efforts to protect the rights of journalists. Such efforts included providing aid, handling complaints, and protecting health of journalists.
The China Journalist Aid Project is a non-profit project launched by the ACJA in 2014. In the past eight years, the project has provided RMB 16.82 million in aid to 371 journalists who suffered from work-related injuries or diseases or died due to a work-related accident or disease. In 2020, the project provided RMB 3,950,000 in aid to 68 journalists from 3 central media outlets and 46 local media outlets. In 2021, the project provided RMB 1.85 million to 57 journalists from 3 central media outlets and 49 local media outlets.
Table 5 List of recipients of China Journalist Aid Project in 2020
|No.||Name||Media outlet||Level of aid|
|1||Zhang Zhe||Hulunbuir Daily, Inner Mongolia||Work-related death|
|2||Ma Yan||Hulunbuir Daily, Inner Mongolia|
|3||Deng Xiaojie||Yiyang Television, Hunan|
|4||Min Jiangwei||Zhouqu Converged Media Center, Gansu|
|5||Wang Yanhui||Zhouqu Converged Media Center, Gansu|
|6||Chen Wenyan||Zhouqu Converged Media Center, Gansu|
|7||Xu Yong||Xinhua News Agency||Sudden death while on duty due to illness|
|8||Zhu Wenwei||Henan Daxiang Merged Media Group|
|9||Wang Denan||Shuangfeng Converged Media Center, Hunan|
|10||Wang Jingwen||Jilin Television||Level 8 or more severe disability caused by a work-related injury or disease|
|11||Qi Li||Muling Television, Heilongjiang|
|12||Luo Bin||Changjiang Daily Press Group, Hubei||Serious illness resulting from overwork|
|13||Wang Jin||Jingzhou Television, Hubei|
|14||Yu Jianbao||Hubei Branch of Xinhua News Agency|
|15||Qin Qing||Yunnan Branch of Xinhua News Agency|
|16||Jin Biaorong||China Media Group|
|17||Gao Lei||China Media Group|
|18||Jiang Yaming||China Sports Publications Corporation|
|19||Fang Fang||Beijing Daily|
|20||Zhang Yu||Beijing Daily|
|21||Hasi Chaolu||Inner Mongolia Radio and Television|
|22||Cao Xiaoxia||Harbin Daily Group, Heilongjiang|
|23||Su Jiyan||Anhui Television|
|24||Zhou Linghu||Xinyu Television, Jiangxi|
|25||Zhu Tao||Henan Daily|
|26||Zhang Hongyu||Zhengzhou Radio, Henan|
|27||Zhao Aihong||Sanmenxia Daily, Henan|
|28||Chen Qing||Zhuzhou Television, Hunan|
|29||Liu Zhen||Zhuzhou Daily, Hunan|
|30||Cheng Yu||Sichuan Cover Media|
|31||Wang Jinning||Honghe Television, Yunnan|
|32||Zhang Mei||Tacheng Daily, Xinjiang|
|33||Zhang Xiaoqi||Hulunbuir Daily, Inner Mongolia||Level 9-10 disability caused by a work-related injury or disease|
|34||Zhang Lihua||News Center of Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau, Liaoning|
|35||Chen Xia||Quzhou Daily Press Group, Zhejiang|
|36||La Sha||Quzhou Daily Press Group, Zhejiang|
|37||Yang Niangui||Shimen Converged Media Center, Hunan|
|38||Luo Lei||Guizhou Television|
|39||Duan Shufan||Shaanxi Television|
|40||Yan Peng||Xinjiang Television|
|41||Hu Sile||Bayannur Daily, Inner Mongolia|
|42||Tang Shuguang||Jilin Television|
|43||Wang Suying||Anhui Daily Press Group|
|44||Zhou Jilong||Anhui Daily Press Group|
|45||Zhuang Yan||Guiyang Daily Media Group, Guizhou|
|46||Lai Shenglong||Shizuishan News Media Center, Ningxia|
|47||Jiang Yi||Zhejiang Longyou Media Group||Poverty caused by serious illness|
|48||Wang Jiabin||Hanshan Converged Media Center, Anhui|
|49||Min Xijun||Wuzhong News Media Center, Ningxia|
|50||Yang Yuting||China Media Group||Work and life affected by minor workplace injury|
|51||Kang Jian||Hulunbuir Daily, Inner Mongolia|
|52||Fan Xiaolei||Beilun Media Center, Ningbo, Zhejiang|
|53||Shi Minling||Jiangxi Television|
|54||Gao Xiao||Jiangxi Television|
|55||Wu Ping||Jiangxi Television|
|56||Wang Hongfei||Jiyuan Daily, Henan|
|57||Zhang Jie||Xinyang Television, Henan|
|58||Zhou Ning||Xiangyang Daily, Hubei|
|59||Le Changxing||Tongshan Converged Media Center, Hubei|
|60||Yang Jing||Shenzhen Press Group, Guangdong|
|61||Li Jie||Guizhou Daily Contemporary Converged Media Group|
|62||Huang Chaohong||City Times, Yunnan|
|63||Pan Anye||Honghe Television, Yunnan|
|64||Wang Yejun||Shaanxi Television|
|65||Wang Jun||Shaanxi Television|
|66||Li Wenqin||Zhongwei News Media Center, Ningxia|
|67||Yuan Hongjian||Shizuishan News Media Center, Ningxia|
|68||Guribahar Kurbanhali||Ili Daily, Xinjiang|
Table 6 List of recipients of China Journalist Aid Project in 2021
|No.||Name||Media outlet||Level of aid|
|1||Xu Zheng||Xinhua News Agency||Sudden death while on duty due to illness|
|2||Fan Chunsheng||Xinhua News Agency|
|3||Jiao Guosong||Mohe Converged Media Center, Heilongjiang|
|4||Luan Yuelin||Zhengzhou Press Group, Henan|
|5||Zhang Chi||Hebei Television||Level 8 or more severe disability caused by a work-related injury or disease|
|6||Wang Hui||Quzhou Daily Press Group, Zhejiang|
|7||Zhang Jie||Xinyang Television, Henan|
|8||Fu Ping||Baoji Radio, Shaanxi|
|9||Wei Wei||Converged Media Center of the 13th Division of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps|
|10||Zeng Ying||China Media Group||Serious illness resulting from overwork|
|11||Wang Xiaodong||Beijing Youth Daily|
|12||Chen Yunling||Hebei Economic Daily|
|13||Chen Wanjiu||Fuxin Media Center, Liaoning|
|14||Hu Yanxun||Xinmin Evening News, Shanghai|
|15||Huang Meijuan||Anhui Television|
|16||Wu Yuqing||Fujian Daily|
|17||Shi Jian||Xiangxi Unity News Agency, Hunan|
|18||Yin Jieyu||Hainan Broadcasting Group|
|19||Diao Mingkang||Sichuan Cover Media|
|20||Wang Shu||Zhaotong Daily, Yunnan|
|21||Li Linshan||Wuwei Daily, Gansu|
|22||Wang Jianlong||Xinjiang Press Media Group|
|23||Chen Zhonghua||Dazhong News Group, Shandong|
|24||Jia Xueliang||Wuyuan Converged Media Center, Inner Mongolia||Poverty caused by serious illness|
|25||Zhao Tianyi||Liaoshen Evening News, Liaoning|
|26||Deng Fubin||Siping Television, Jilin|
|27||Li Wei||Shandong Television|
|28||Feng Shuwei||Jiaozuo Daily, Henan|
|29||Liu Luoqiang||Changsha Television, Hunan|
|30||Jia Sujuan||Ningxia Television|
|31||Li Wei||Farmers’ Daily||Level 9-10 disability caused by a work-related injury or disease|
|32||Wang Yuqi||Farmers’ Daily|
|33||Hao Yan||Tangshan Labor Daily, Hebei|
|34||Zhong Xindong||Laiyuan Converged Media Center, Hebei|
|35||Hao Yunying||Shanghai Media Group|
|36||Guo Jianfeng||Xinmin Evening News, Shanghai|
|37||Chen Ying||Zhejiang Daily Press Group|
|38||Wang Jingjing||Anyang Television, Henan|
|39||Chen Haiyan||Anyang Television, Henan|
|40||Zhang Yujing||Changde Daily, Hunan|
|41||Zhang Yabin||Nanchong Daily, Sichuan|
|42||Peng Hui||Liupanshui Television, Guizhou Province|
|43||Yang Liu||Weinan Television, Shaanxi|
|44||Meng Haihong||Weinan Television, Shaanxi|
|45||Ma Guozhen||Shizuishan News Media Center, Ningxia|
|46||Liu Hui||Converged Media Center of the 13th Division of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps|
|47||Ning Shuyi||Tianjin Television and Radio Station||Work and life affected by minor workplace injury|
|48||Qi Jinwu||Qahar Right Front Banner Converged Media Center, Inner Mongolia|
|49||Zhang Xin||Gannan Converged Media Center, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang|
|50||Wang Bowen||Songjiang Converged Media Center, Shanghai|
|51||Yu Xinyi||Zhejiang Daily Press Group|
|52||Gu Jilei||Hebi Daily, Henan|
|53||Ba Weifeng||Xinzheng Radio and Television News Center, Henan|
|54||Sun Wei||Ya’an Radio and Television, Sichuan|
|55||Tang Qi||Anshun Daily, Guizhou|
|56||Zhao Ming||Shaanxi Television|
|57||Sun Lijuan||Wuwei Daily, Gansu|
Among the aid recipients, some died due to overwork, and some suffered from work-related injuries or diseases and were unable to care for themselves. Xu Zheng, a reporter from the Sports Department of Xinhua News Agency, who participated in the coverage of six editions of Olympic Games, died of a heart attack in July 2020 while working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yin Jieyu, former editor-in-chief of Hainan Broadcasting Group and a winner of the China News Award, who had worked on the front lines against COVID-19 many times, died of disease on December 13, 2020.
Figure 36 Xu Zheng, a reporter from the sports news department of Xinhua News Agency, reporting on the curling event at Winter Universiade 2017 in Almaty
Figure 37 In January 2020, Yin Jieyu (the second from the right), former editor-in-chief of Hainan Broadcasting Group, directing the live-streaming of the United in Fight Against COVID-19 Program at Hainan Traffic Radio
The ACJA is responsible for investigating illegal acts that infringe upon the rights of journalists. In 2020 and 2021, the ACJA received 17 complaints raised by phone, in person, or in writing by email or mail, and successfully resolved all complaints, thereby effectively protecting journalists’ rights, including the right to information, personal rights, and labor rights.
In 2020, the governments of the United States and Australia designated Chinese media outlets as foreign missions and expelled and raided several Chinese journalists. In response to the aforementioned barbaric and unreasonable actions of these governments, the ACJA spoken out four times, condemning their political suppression of Chinese journalists and resolutely protecting the rights of Chinese journalists.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected physical and mental health of journalists. The ACJA has taken measures to look after the journalists. In 2020 and 2021, it launched a special group insurance scheme for journalists working on the front lines against COVID-19. It also purchased life insurance for nearly 4,600 journalists who reported on COVID-19 in hardest-hit areas and 1,216 resident reporters reporting from the front line of COVID-19 outbreak across the world. Nine journalists received RMB 450,000 in aid from the ACJA.
Figure 38 Staff of Hubei Provincial Journalists Association counting COVID-19 relief supplies donated by the ACJA
The ACJA has also invited doctors and experts to give online health lectures to journalists during the COVID-19 pandemic and offer free online consultation for five journalists from Xinhua News Agency and local media outlets based in Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Henan and Fujian.
Figure 39 The ACJA and Health Times jointly held a series of health lectures for journalists.
Chinese journalists stationed abroad have been on the front line of international news reporting, covering turmoil, conflicts, disasters and emergencies around the world, seeking to get China’s voice heard on the international stage. In 2021, the ACJA, Taikang Insurance Group and the Red Cross Foundation of China jointly launched a special group insurance scheme for journalists stationed in dangerous areas abroad. Fifty reporters dispatched by six central media outlets received life insurance worth RMB 400,000 per person.
Figure 40 Insurance card of the group insurance scheme for Chinese war correspondents stationed abroad
In 2020 and 2021, the ACJA increased efforts to instill professional ethical standards in journalists, improve media outlets’ CSR evaluation and reporting system, and strengthen industry self-discipline. It urged media outlets and journalists to practice ethical journalism, abide by professional ethics, and fulfill social responsibilities.
In 2020 and 2021, the Journalistic Ethics Committee of the ACJA encouraged journalist to study professional ethics, conducted news reviews, carefully verified complaints, and played an important role in promoting ethical journalism and solving major problems in the industry.
On July 14, 2021, the plenary meeting of the second Journalistic Ethics Committee was held to report on the work of the first Journalistic Ethics Committee, vote on the new leadership of the committee, and deliberate the revision of the committee’s charter.
Most of the members are from organizations vital to people’s wellbeing. The committee provides a regular and institutionalized platform for all sectors of society to participate in the supervision of the news industry. It plays an important role in strengthening self-discipline in the news industry.
Figure 41 Plenary meeting of the second Journalistic
Ethics Committee of the ACJA
In 2020 and 2021, the ACJA organized a lot of studies activities centering around the newly revised Code of Professional Ethics for Journalists (hereinafter referred to as the “Code”).
1. Online learning
In April 2020, the questions relating to the Code of Professional Ethics for Journalists were officially launched on Xue Xi Qiang Guo. Journalists, including new media practitioners, participated in online study activities relating to news gathering and editing.
2. Offline training
The ACJA organized special study sessions on professional ethics and the principles of the Code at major central media outlets, industry-specific media outlets, and journalism departments of universities. More than 2,000 people participated in the study sessions.
Figure 42 Young employees of the China Media Group
attending a lecture given by the secretary of the ACJA on the Code
3. Interpretation by experts
Experts and scholars from journalism departments of universities and research institutes have published articles on the background of the revision of the Code and the essence of the Code.
Figure 43 Related articles published in Media and The Press
4. Workshops and seminars
In July 2021, the ACJA held a seminar to mark the 30th anniversary of the promulgation of the Code. The delegates participated in the seminar. They discussed how to promote professional ethics and improve professionalism of journalists.
Figure 44 The ACJA seminar to mark the 30th anniversary of the promulgation of the Code
In 2020 and 2021, the Journalistic Ethics Committee of the ACJA continued to adopt the problem-oriented approach, strive to capture the zeitgeist of the era, and conduct news reviews to fight misinformation in the time of COVID-19 and promote innovation in themed reporting.
1. Adhering to the problem-oriented approach
On June 9, 2020, the Journalistic Ethics Committee held a meeting on the implementation of the revised Code to fight misinformation in the time of COVID-19. At the meeting, experts discussed typical cases, analyzed the causes and harms of misinformation, explored measures to fight misinformation, and urged journalists to abide by professional ethics and resolutely fight misinformation.
2. Capturing the zeitgeist of the era
To capture the zeitgeist the omni-media era, the Journalistic Ethics Committee held a review meeting on the theme “Innovation in Themed Reporting in the Omni-Media Era” on December 9, 2020. The committee reviewed excellent reports on the fifth plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Committee, poverty eradication, the fight against COVID-19, and other important themes, summarized experience and best practices, and explored innovative paths, with a view to promoting innovations in themed reporting.
iv. Handling complaints and handing over all clues to competent authorities
In 2020 and 2021, the ACJA continued to perform its duties relating to the handling complaints of violation of professional ethics by journalists.
1. Handling complaints
In the past two years, it received more than 1,700 complaints raised by phone, in person, or in writing by email. It used the complaint registration form to gather information on complaints related to the news industry.
2. Handing over all clues to competent authorities
The committee has worked with competent authorities and media outlets to verify and handle complaints. Clues it handed over to competent authorities in 2020 and 2021 concerned false reports, illegal possession of journalist certificates, and profiteering activities of media outlets and journalists. Some complaints were verified, and media outlets and reporters involved were punished in accordance with law and regulations.
II. Improving the media CSR reporting system
In 2020 and 2021, the scope of CSR disclosure by media outlets continued to expand. In 2020, 51 media outlets published CSR reports for 2019. In 2021, more than 100 media outlets published CSR reports for 2020. Eighteen central media outlets published CSR reports for the first time. Some city-level media outlets also published CSR reports. In Hainan, all provincial, city-level, and county-level media outlets published CSR reports.
Many media outlets published multimedia CSR reports on new media platforms. Some media outlets offered CSR reports printed as a brochure or booklet to make it easier for readers to browse. In 2020, the ACJA and the School of Journalism and Communication of Renmin University of China jointly conducted a survey to evaluate media outlets’ CSR performance based on information collected by third parties via sampling and questionnaire surveys.
In May 2021, the ACJA issued the Implementation Measures for the Media CSR Reporting System, establishing an operational quantitative evaluation index system and a collaborative evaluation system involving different stakeholders and specifying evaluation indicators, content of CSR report, evaluation methods, and application of evaluation results.
According to the above Measures, the Journalistic Ethics Committee of the ACJA held a meeting on August 24, 2021 to review CSR reports published by media outlets for 2020. It scored the performance of 18 central media outlets in nine aspects, including compliance, services, humanity, ethnics, and protection of employee rights. The Industry News Association of China and local journalist associations have also set up journalistic ethics committees to evaluate CSR reports published by media outlets at the same level.
Figure 48 The ACJA meeting to review CSR reports published by media outlets for 2020
Zhong Xin, Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication and Deputy Director of the Institute of International Communication at Renmin University of China
Zhang Di, Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication and Director of the Department of International Journalism and Communication at Renmin University of China
Lu Jiayi, Associate Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication and Director of the Department of Journalism at the Communication University of China
Tang Xuan, Associate Professor at the School of Television and Deputy Director of the Department of International Journalism at the Communication University of China
Jin Shengjun, PhD candidate at the School of Journalism and Communication, Renmin University of China
He Jingwei, PhD candidate at the School of Journalism and Communication, Renmin University of China
Lin Qianyu, PhD candidate at the School of Journalism and Communication, Renmin University of China
Guan Yilun, PhD candidate at the School of Journalism and Communication, Renmin University of China
Zou Rui, PhD candidate at the School of Journalism and Communication, Renmin University of China